There could be some individuals who start early, experiment and then stop. And there are several who could begin early and go on into a progressive trajectory of continuing drug use. We wanted to understand what separates the two? During four assessments, individuals provided self-reports of drug use in the previous 30 days. Four working memory space tests also were conducted: Corsi block tapping, in which subjects viewed identical blocks that lit up randomly on a display and tapped each package in reverse order of the light sequence; a digit-span check where numbers shown should be repeated in reverse order; a letter two-back test, where subjects identify specific letters in time-sensitive sequences; and a spatial working-memory job where hidden tokens must be found quickly within models of four to eight randomly positioned boxes on a screen.Cerebrovascular events in this high-risk individual population are the result of a complex interaction of many factors, including the existence of atherosclerotic carotid and aortic disease, atrial fibrillation,24 traumatic head injuries in the elderly , and concomitant anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy.25 A decrease in the diameter of these devices, the usage of distal protection devices,26,27 and better standardization of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy28 could be helpful in lowering the incidence of early strokes. Late strokes may represent a continuous hazard in this high-risk elderly population. Echocardiographic analyses revealed superb valve hemodynamics that remained durable during the period of 2 years, with no proof valve migration, leaflet thickening, or calcification.