3 percent and 0.

However, previous research suggests that epilepsy drugs may increase the risk of birth defects. After birth.there are no adequate studies of the risks associated with different doses compared or evaluated the impact of potential confounders , as a family history of birth defects or severity of epilepsy. – ‘Warn Present guidelines on the use of valproic acid during pregnancy, but offer little guidance on alternative options and how women manage their seizures other other medications,’says Tomson Torbj rn from the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Swedish and international colleagues..

Provide more evidence, the researchers examined the relationship between the use of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproic acid and phenobarbital in different doses and the risk of major birth defects in utero realized until the end of the first year after birth. The study used data from the International Registry of antiepileptic drugs and pregnancy and included 3909 pregnancies. In addition, of 230 pregnancies were associated with severe abnormalities found by the end of the first year after birth. An increase in the rate of congenital defect was specified with increasing dose for all drugs. The price was the lowest. At low doses of the drug lamotrigine and carbamazepine .

The highest doses of valproic acid introduced and phenobarbital the highest risk to the fetus, with particularly high rates of birth defects in pregnancies exposed to valproic captures acid 1,500 mg or or more.Experiencing as children gain the ability to recognize and understanding her thoughts and feeling is a matter from increased scientific interest, there self – awareness is a prerequisite for developing a wide range of important human characteristics, from a consciences with healthy relations.


Preschoolers more inward than we give them credit in itself, according at new research Simona ghettos, assistant professor of psychology at the UC Davis. – Ghetti and their co-investigator, Kristen Lyons, a student of psychology at UC Davis presented their Results The to ‘Young Researchers in Developmental Psychology ‘symposium at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association in San Francisco. – academics showed that , monkeys and even, monkeys and even rats to commit in any form on ‘Metakognition ‘or aware of their own thought processes.